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Veste Peuterey Homme Hurricane Wd Raffiné Profonde Bleu

Veste Peuterey Homme Hurricane Wd Raffiné Profonde Bleu

Natural tropical forests are highly diverse and are known to contribute to forest-based services such as pollination of nearby crops. Landscape changes cause spatial and temporal bee community changes, but consequences how the community changes affect pollination is not well analyzed. This paper addresses the effects of rainforest distance and on site flower resources in agro-forests on spatial and temporal variation in pollinator communities and the consequences for coffee pollination.

The study was conducted in 24 agro-forests dominated by coffee and cacao in Sulawesi, Indonesia differing Woolrich Suisse in their distance to rainforest margin of the Lore-Lindu National Park and in flower density and its temporal variation. In all agro-forests, (1) transect surveys of the understory were obtained over a five-month period to assess bee community compositional similarity, bee diversity, and the temporal variation in bee diversity; and (2) coffee flower visitors were observed and open and bagged pollination treatments conducted over one week of coffee blooming to assess bee diversity and the spatial variation in bee diversity and coffee pollination.

Mean number of shared species of the understory ranged between 40 and 60% per agro-forest and was higher in agro-forests nearby the rainforest than in agro-forests with a minimal distance of 500 m isolated from the rainforest. Mean species richness in the understory and in coffee flowers decreased with rainforest isolation and increased with flower resource availability. Temporal variation in bee species richness of the understory and spatial variation of Woolrich Parka Homme the coffee flower-visiting bee species richness per agro-forest increased with forest distance. The variation in bee species richness decreased the mean and increased the spatial variation in bee-pollinated coffee fruit set per agro-forest.

In conclusion, crops grown near intact rainforests and which profit from the pollination by many species may fluctuate less in bee-pollinated fruit Magasin Woolrich En France set across crop plants than crop plants in isolated agriculture that receive low or even single species pollination services.

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