Woolrich Parka Pas Cher Homme Arctic Anorak Noir Grand
The precise characterisation of present-day mangrove ecosystems from modern pollen rain facilitates the accurate use of fossil pollen data for late Quaternary sea level and environmental reconstructions. Here, we investigate whether Parka Woolrich Homme the analysis of pollen rain data corroborates existing floristic and structural characterisation of different mangrove types at the Caribbean island of San Andrés, Colombia. At 82 plots along 20 transects of four distinct mangrove types, Woolrich France Boutique samples were obtained of (i) surface sediments for pollen analysis, and (ii) a range of environmental parameters (including inundation levels, salinity and pH). This information was compared to previously sampled mangrove composition and tree basal area. In surface sediment samples 82 pollen taxa were found, from which 19 were present in the vegetation plots. However, because pollen may be transported by wind and/or watercourses, the overall floristic composition of the different forest types may not necessarily be reflected by the pollen spectra. Local vegetation (i.e. mangroves and beach) represented > 90% of the pollen spectra, while the regional one (i.e. hinterland forests) represented Woolrich Parka < 5% of it. Unlike the four mangrove types that were previously described in the vegetation, the analysis of pollen samples suggested only three distinct types of forest.
The groups were characterised based on (i) the dominance of at least one of the true mangrove species from pollen data ordination and the presence of associated species, and (ii) their relationship with environmental parameters. Rhizophora was present in all plot samples, but did not contribute to forest type separation. In fact, just three true mangrove species proved reliable indicators of (i) high salinity and fringe mangroves (i.e. Avicennia), (ii) high pH levels and landward mangroves (i.e. Conocarpus), and (iii) natural or anthropogenic caused disturbance of forest stands (Laguncularia and associated Acrostichum fern). Hence our study confirms that mangrove pollen spectra can be accurately used to describe different mangrove environments for fossil based palaeoecological reconstructions.